Ocean NanoTech received a NSF SBIR Phase I award to develop nanoparticle based adjuvants for enhanced antibody production. Antibodies (Abs) are very important biomolecules used in many fields of diagnostics, therapy, biomedical research, environmental monitoring and food safety. A number of adjuvant are commercially available for use in animals to boost the antibody production, but most of them pose potential hazards such as excessive inflammation leading to the formation of chronic granulomas, sterile abscesses, and/or ulcerating tissue necrosis. Most importantly, the low antibody titer causes lower yield of antibody, as well as the use of more animals to produce antibodies. In Phase I , we will study the nanoparticle structure and coating effect, such as size, surface charge and components, on animal immunogenicity; we will optimize the formulation of the nanoadjuvant (covalent or charge-charge nanoparticle-antigen interaction) and study the bio-affinity of the antibodies produced. We expect that the nanoadjuvant will increase the immunogenicity and that the antibody titer will be 100 times higher than that without the nanoadjuvant.